Genetic Trigger Discovered For Most Common Form of Mental Disability and Autism

March 8, 2014

March 08, 1014 – The following article just appeared in PsyBlog and provides highly interesting reading in relation to newly discovered molecular mechanisms in the etiology of (possibly individualized) disease predispositions. Very exciting.

The most common form of intellectual disability is caused by a mechanism which shuts of an associated gene, a new study Gene silencingfinds.Scientists at the Weill Cornell Medical College have also shown that a drug can block the silencing mechanism, thereby preventing the most common form of mental disability: fragile X syndrome (Colak et al., 2014).This points the way towards a therapy for fragile X syndrome — a leading genetic cause of autism — and possibly for about 20 other diseases. Fragile X syndrome causes a wide range of emotional, behavioural and physical problems and occurs mostly in boys. For around twenty years scientists have known that the cause of fragile X syndrome is the excess repetition of a sequence of genetic code. The problem was understanding how this code caused the disease.

Now, in a new study, published in the prestigious journal Science, researchers have discovered that this code halts the production of a protein which is crucial to communication within the brain. To find out how to fix this problem, the researchers used human stem cells from embryos that had tested positive for fragile X syndrome to create brain neurons in the lab.

This gave them a model of how the embryonic brain develops in which to test a new drug developed by Dr. Matthew Disney of the Scripps Research Institute. After adding the drug, they found that the gene continued to produce the vital protein, instead of being deactivated as it is in fragile X syndrome.

This points the way towards a treatment for fragile X syndrome. One of the study’s authors, Dr. Samie Jaffrey, explained: The findings have implications for a range of other diseases because of the biological mechanism that has been discovered. Other diseases including Jacobsen syndrome, an intellectual disorder, and Huntington’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder, involve similar repetitions of DNA sequences and so may be amenable to similar treatments.


Incretin Mimetic Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes: Early Communication – Reports of Possible Increased Risk of Pancreatitis and Pre-cancerous Findings of the Pancreas

May 9, 2013

May 09, 2013 – We have just stumbled upon a recent press release to the public by the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on a looming drug safety problem of incretin mimetic drugs related to the pancreas. Find here the unedited press releaase in full:

[Posted 03/14/2013]

AUDIENCE: Gastroenterology, Endocrinology, Oncology, Patient

ISSUE: FDA is evaluating unpublished new findings by a group of academic researchers that suggest an increased risk of pancreatitis and pre-cancerous cellular changes called pancreatic duct metaplasia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with a class of drugs called incretin mimetics. These findings were based on examination of a small number of pancreatic tissue specimens taken from patients after they died from unspecified causes. FDA has asked the researchers to provide the methodology used to collect and study these specimens and to provide the tissue samples so the Agency can further investigate potential pancreatic toxicity associated with the incretin mimetics.

BACKGROUND: Drugs in the incretin mimetic class include exenatide (Byetta, Bydureon), liraglutide (Victoza), sitagliptin (Januvia, Janumet, Janumet XR, Juvisync), saxagliptin (Onglyza, Kombiglyze XR), alogliptin (Nesina, Kazano, Oseni), and linagliptin (Tradjenta, Jentadueto). These drugs work by mimicking the incretin hormones that the body usually produces naturally to stimulate the release of insulin in response to a meal. They are used along with diet and exercise to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes.

RECOMMENDATIONS: FDA has not reached any new conclusions about safety risks with incretin mimetic drugs. This early communication is intended only to inform the public and health care professionals that the Agency intends to obtain and evaluate this new information. FDA will participate in the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) and National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Workshop on Pancreatitis-Diabetes-Pancreatic Cancer in June 2013 to gather and share additional information. FDA will communicate its final conclusions and recommendations when its review is complete or when the Agency has additional information to report.

The Warnings and Precautions section of drug labels and patient Medication Guides for incretin mimetics contain warnings about the risk of acute pancreatitis. FDA has not previously communicated about the potential risk of pre-cancerous findings  of the pancreas with incretin mimetics. FDA has not concluded these drugs may cause or contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.

At this time, patients should continue to take their medicine as directed until they talk to their health care professional, and health care professionals should continue to follow the prescribing recommendations in the drug labels.

Healthcare professionals and patients are encouraged to report adverse events or side effects related to the use of these products to the FDA’s MedWatch Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting Program:

Complete and submit the report Online: http://www.fda.gov/MedWatch/report.htm
Download form or call 1-800-332-1088 to request a reporting form, then complete and return to the address on the pre-addressed form, or submit by fax to 1-800-FDA-0178


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